Comprehensive list of papers

Here below the reader can find a comprehensive overview on peer-reviewed papers by the Binnemans group on hydrometallurgy and solvometallurgy . The papers are listed according to the following categories: 1. Review papers, 2. Solvometallurgy, 3. Ionic liquid technology for critical metal recovery, 4. Recovery of metals from aqueous solutions and industrial process residues, 5. Rare earths and the balance problem, 6. Development of analytical methods.

1. Review papers
  • K. Binnemans, P. T. Jones, Bart Blanpain, T. Van Gerven, Y. Yang, A. Walton, M. Buchert, "Recycling of rare earths: a critical review", Journal of Cleaner Production, 51, 1-22 (2013) - download
  • K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, "Perspectives for the recovery of rare earths from end-of-life fluorescent lamps", Journal of Rare Earths, 32(3), 195-200 (2014) - download
  • K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, B. Blanpain, T. Van Gerven, Y. Pontikes ,"Towards zero-waste valorisation of rare-earth-containing industrial process residues: a critical review ", Journal of Cleaner Production, 99, 17–38 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, S. Arnout, P.T. Jones, K. Binnemans, "Antimony Recovery from End-of-Life Products and Industrial Process Residues: A Critical Review", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 1 (3), 199-215 (2015) - download
  • C.R. Rao, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, "Recovery of rare earths and other valuable metals from bauxite residue (red mud): a review", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 2, 365–386 (2016).
  • Y. Yang. A. Walton, R. Sheridan, K. Güth, R. Gauß, O. Gutfleisch, M. Buchert, B.M. Steenari, T. Van Gerven, P.T. Jones, K. Binnemans, "REE Recovery from End-of-Life NdFeB Permanent Magnet Scrap: A Critical Review", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 3, 122–149 (2017) - download
  • K. Binnemans and P.T. Jones, "Solvometallurgy: an emerging branch of extractive metallurgy", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, (2017) in press. DOI: 10.1007/s40831-017-0128-2 - download
2. SOLVOMETALLURGY
  • Wellens, B. Thijs, C. Möller, K. Binnemans, "Separation of Cobalt and Nickel by Solvent Extraction with Two Mutually Immiscible Ionic Liquids", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15, 9663-9669 (2013).
  • S. Wellens, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, C. Möller, B. Thijs, J. Luyten, K. Binnemans,"Dissolution of metal oxides in an acid-saturated ionic liquid solution and investigation of back-extraction behaviour to the aqueous phase", Hydrometallurgy, 144-145, 27-33 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout, S. Wellens, K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths and nickel by solvent extraction with two mutually immiscible ionic liquids", RSC Advances, 4, 5753-5758 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout, K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid–liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase", Dalton Trans., 43, 3186-3195 (2014) - download
  • D. Dupont and K. Binnemans,"Rare-earth recycling using a functionalized ionic liquid for the selective dissolution and revalorization of Y2O3:Eu3+ from lamp phosphor waste ", Green Chemistry, 17, 856–868 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, S. Raiguel, K. Binnemans,"Sulfonic acid functionalized ionic liquids for dissolution of metal oxides and solvent extraction of metal ions ", Chemical Communications, 51, 9006–9009 (2015) - download
  • Dupont, E. Renders, K. Binnemans,"Alkylsulfuric acid ionic liquids: a promising class of strongly acidic room-temperature ionic liquids", Chemical Communications, 52, 4640–4643 (2016) - download
  • Dupont, E. Renders, S. Raiguel, K. Binnemans,"New metal extractants and super-acidic ionic liquids derived from sulfamic acid", Chemical Communications, 52, 7032–7035 (2016) - download
  • N.K. Batchu, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, D. Banerjee, K. Binnemans, "Non-aqueous solvent extraction of rare-earth nitrates from ethylene glycol to n-dodecane by Cyanex 923", Separation and Purification Technology, 174, 544–553 (2017).
  • K. Binnemans and P.T. Jones, "Solvometallurgy: an emerging branch of extractive metallurgy", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy (2017) in press. DOI: 10.1007/s40831-017-0128-2 - download
  • N.K. Batchu, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, D. Banerjee, K. Binnemans, Separation of rare earths by non-aqueous solvent extraction from ethylene glycol (+LiCl) solutions with Cyanex 923 in n-dodecane, RSC Advances 7, 45351–45362 (2017)  - download
3. IONIC LIQUIDS (IL) TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL METAL RECOVERY
  • S. Wellens, B. Thijs, K. Binnemans, “An environmentally friendlier approach to hydrometallurgy: highly selective separation of cobalt from nickel by solvent extraction with undiluted phosphonium ionic liquids”, Green Chemistry, 14, 1657–1665 (2012).
  • S. Wellens, R. Goovaerts, C. Möller, J. Luyten, B. Thijs and K. Binnemans,"Continuous ionic liquid extraction process for the separation of cobalt from nickel", Green Chemistry, 15, 3160-3164 (2013) - download
  • S. Wellens, B. Thijs, C. Möller, K. Binnemans, "Separation of Cobalt and Nickel by Solvent Extraction with Two Mutually Immiscible Ionic Liquids", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15, 9663-9669 (2013).
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, S. Wellens, K. Verachtert, K. Binnemans, "Removal of transition metals from rare earths by solvent extraction with an undiluted phosphonium ionic liquid: separations relevant to rare-earth magnet recycling", Green Chemistry, 15, 919-927 (2013) - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, B. Onghena, K. Binnemans, "Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of metal ions with a functionalized ionic liquid", The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 4, 1659−1663 (2013) - download
  • A. Rout, J. Kotlarska, W. Dehaen, K. Binnemans,"Liquid-liquid extraction of neodymium(III) by dialkylphosphate ionic liquids from acidic medium: the importance of the ionic liquid cation", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15, 16533-16541 (2013). - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, B. Onghena, K. Binnemans,"Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of rare earths with the betaine - betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid system", International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 21353-21377 (2013). - download
  • A. Rout, K. Binnemans,"Liquid–liquid extraction of europium(III) and other trivalent rare-earth ions using a non-fluorinated functionalized ionic liquid", Dalton Trans., 43, 1862–1872 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout, S. Wellens, K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths and nickel by solvent extraction with two mutually immiscible ionic liquids", RSC Advances, 4, 5753-5758 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout, K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid–liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase", Dalton Trans., 43, 3186-3195 (2014) - download
  • S. Wellens, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, C. Möller, B. Thijs, J. Luyten, K. Binnemans,"Dissolution of metal oxides in an acid-saturated ionic liquid solution and investigation of back-extraction behaviour to the aqueous phase", Hydrometallurgy, 144-145, 27-33 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout, S. Wellens, K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths and nickel by solvent extraction with two mutually immiscible ionic liquids", RSC Advances 4, 5753–5758 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout and K. Binnemans,"Solvent extraction of neodymium(III) by functionalized ionic liquid trioctylmethylammonium dioctyl diglycolamate in fluorine-free ionic liquid diluent", Industrial & Enginereering Chemistry Research, 53, 6500–6508 (2014) - download
  • B. Onghena, J. Jacobs, L. Van Meervelt, K. Binnemans,"Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of neodymium(III) by choline hexafluoroacetylacetonate in the ionic liquid choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide", Dalton Transactions, 43, 11566–11578 (2014) - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, K. Binnemans,"Highly efficient separation of rare earths from nickel and cobalt by solvent extraction with the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium nitrate: process relevant to the recycling of rare earths from permanent magnets and nickel metal hydride batteri", Green Chemistry, 16, 1594-1606 (2014) - download
  • K. Larsson and K. Binnemans,"Selective extraction of metals using ionic liquids for nickel metal hydride battery recycling", Green Chemistry, 16, 4595-4603 (2014) - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, B. Blanpain, T. Van Gerven, K. Binnemans,"From NdFeB magnets towards the rare-earth oxides: a recycling process consuming only oxalic acid", RSC Advances 4, 64099-64111 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout and K. Binnemans,"Influence of the ionic liquid cation on the solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions by mixtures of Cyanex 923 and ionic liquids", Dalton Transactions 44, 1379–1387 (2015) - download
  • B. Onghena, K. Binnemans,"Recovery of Scandium from Aqueous Solutions by Solvent Extraction with the Functionalized Ionic Liquid Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 54, 1887–1898 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont and K. Binnemans,"Rare-earth recycling using a functionalized ionic liquid for the selective dissolution and revalorization of Y2O3:Eu3+ from lamp phosphor waste", Green Chemistry, 17, 856–868 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, K. Binnemans,"Recycling of rare earths from NdFeB magnets using a combined leaching/extraction system based on the acidity and thermomorphism of the ionic liquid [Hbet][Tf2N]", Green Chemistry, 17, 2150–2163 (2015) - download
  • S. Riano, K. Binnemans,"Extraction and separation of neodymium and dysprosium from used NdFeB magnets: an application of ionic liquids in solvent extraction towards the recycling of magnets ", Green Chemistry, 17, 2931–2942 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, S. Raiguel, K. Binnemans,"Sulfonic acid functionalized ionic liquids for dissolution of metal oxides and solvent extraction of metal ions ", Chemical Communications, 51, 9006–9009 (2015) - download
  • D. Parmentier, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, S.J. Metz, K. Binnemans, M.C. Kroon ,"Selective extraction of metals from chloride solutions by a low-viscous oleate ionic liquid", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 54, 5149–5158 (2015) - download
  • K. Larsson and K. Binnemans,"Metal recovery from nickel metal hydride batteries using Cyanex 923 in tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate from chloride aqueous media ", Sustainable Metallurgy, 1, 161–167 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, D. Depuydt, K. Binnemans,"Overview of the Effect of Salts on Biphasic Ionic Liquid/Water Solvent Extraction Systems: Anion Exchange, Mutual Solubility and Thermomorphic Properties", Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 119, 6747-6757 (2015) - download
  • K. Larsson and K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths by split-anion extraction", Hydrometallurgy, 156, 206–214 (2015) - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, J. Blockx, H. De Coster, K. Binnemans,"Selective Metal Separations by a Triphasic Ionic liquid – Water – Ionic Liquid System", Chemistry a European Journal, 21, 11757–11766 (2015) - download
  • D. Depuydt, L.W. Liu, C. Glorieux, W. Dehaen, K. Binnemans,"Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of metal ions with non-fluorinated bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ionic liquids having a lower critical solution temperature in combination with water", Chemical Communications, 51, 14183–14186 (2015) - download
  • D. Depuydt, W. Dehaen, K. Binnemans,"Solvent Extraction of Scandium(III) by an Aqueous Biphasic System with a Non-Fluorinated Functionalized Ionic Liquid", Industrial & Enginereering Chemistry Research, 54, 8988–8996 (2015) - download
  • B. Onghena, T. Opsomer, K. Binnemans,"Separation of cobalt and nickel using a thermomorphic ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic system", Chemical Communications, 51, 15932–15935 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, K. Binnemans,"Antimony recovery from the halophosphate fraction in lamp phosphor waste: a zero-waste approach", Green Chemistry, 18, 176-185 (2016) - download
  • D. Dupont, E. Renders, K. Binnemans,"Alkylsulfuric acid ionic liquids: a promising class of strongly acidic room-temperature ionic liquids", Chemical Communications, 52, 4640–4643 (2016) - download
  • D. Dupont, E. Renders, S. Raiguel, K. Binnemans,"New metal extractants and super-acidic ionic liquids derived from sulfamic acid", Chemical Communications 52, 7032–7035 (2016) - download
  • D. Parmentier, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, D. Banerjee, Y.A. Valia, S.J. Metz, K. Binnemans, M.C. Kroon,"Mechanism for solvent extraction of first row transition metals from chloride media with the ionic liquid tetraoctylammonium oleate", Dalton Transactions 45, 9661-9668 (2016) - download
  • A. Rout, K. Binnemans,"Efficient separation of transition metals from rare earths by an undiluted phosphonium thiocyanate ionic liquid", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 18, 16039-16045 (2016) - download
  • C. Deferm, M. Van de Voorde, J. Luyten, H. Oosterhof, J. Fransaer, K. Binnemans, "Purification of indium by solvent extraction with undiluted ionic liquids",  Green Chemistry 18, 4116–4127 (2016).
  • B. Onghena, C.R. Borra, T. Van Gerven, K. Binnemans, "Recovery of scandium from sulfation-roasted leachates of bauxite residue by solvent extraction with the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide", Separation and Purification Technology 176, 208–219 (2017).
  • K. Larsson, K. Binnemans, "Separation of rare earths by solvent extraction with undiluted nitrate ionic liquids", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy 3, 73–78 (2017).
  • D. Depuydt, W. Dehaen, K. Binnemans, "Docusate ionic liquids: effect of cation on water solubility and solvent extraction behavior", ChemPlusChem 82, 458–466 (2017).
  • C. Deferm, B. Onghena, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, D. Banerjee, J. Luyten, H. Oosterhof, J. Fransaer, K. Binnemans, "Speciation of indium(III) chloro complexes in the solvent extraction process from chloride aqueous solutions to ionic liquids", Dalton Transactions, 46, 4412–4421 (2017).
  • S. Raiguel, D. Depuydt, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, J. Thomas, W. Dehaen, K. Binnemans, "Selective alkaline stripping of metal ions after solvent extraction by base-stable triazolium ionic liquids", Dalton Transactions 46, 5269–5278 (2017).
4. RECOVERY OF METALS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESS RESIDUES
  • J. Roosen, K. Binnemans,"Adsorption and chromatographic separation of rare earths with EDTA- and DTPA-functionalized chitosan biopolymers", Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2, 1530–1540 (2014). - download
  • D. Dupont, W. Brullot. M. Bloemen, T. Verbiest, K. Binnemans,"Selective uptake of rare earths from aqueous solutions by EDTA-functionalized magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, 4980–4988 (2014) - download
  • D. Dupont, J. Luyten, M. Bloemen, T. Verbiest, K. Binnemans,"Acid-stable magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for the separation of rare earths", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 53, 15222–15229 (2014) - download
  • J. Roosen, J. Spooren, K. Binnemans,"Absorption performance of functionalized chitosan-silica hybrid materials toward rare earths", Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2, 19415–19426 (2014) - download
  • C. Borra, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Leaching of rare earths from bauxite residue (red mud)", Minerals Engineering, 76, 20-27 (2015) - download
  • J. Roosen, J. Pype, K. Binnemans, S. Mullens,"Shaping of alginate-silica hybrid materials into microspheres through vibrating-nozzle technology and their use for the recovery of neodymium from aqueous solutions", Industrial & Enginereering Chemistry Research, 54, 12836–12846 (2015) - download
  • B. Van den Bogaert, D. Havaux, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, "Photochemical recovery of europium from rare-earth mixtures", Green Chemistry, 17, 2180–2187 (2015).
  • J. Roosen, S. Van Roosendael, C.R. Borra, T. Van Gerven, S. Mullens, K. Binnemans,"Recovery of scandium from leachates of Greek bauxite residue by adsorption on functionalized chitosan-silica hybrid materials", Green Chemistry, 16, 2005-2013 (2016) - download
  • C.R Borra, J. Mermans, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, "Selective recovery of rare earths from bauxite residue by combination of sulfation, roasting and leaching", Minerals Engineering, 92, 151-159 (2016) - download
  • C.R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, "Smelting of bauxite residue (red mud) in view of selective rare earths leaching", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 2, 28–37 (2016).
  • C.R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, "Comparative analysis of processes for recovery of rare earths from bauxite residue", Journal of Metals (JOM), 68, 2958–2962 (2016).
  • B. Van den Bogaert, L. Van Meerbeeck, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, "Influence of irradiance on the photochemical reduction of europium(III)", Green Chemistry, 18, 4198–4204 (2016).
  • B. Van den Bogaert, L. Gheeraert, M. Enis Leblebici, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, "Photochemical recovery of europium from nonaqueous solutions",  Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18, 29961-29968 (2016).
  • N.K. Batchu, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, D. Banerjee, K. Binnemans, "Non-aqueous solvent extraction of rare-earth nitrates from ethylene glycol to n-dodecane by Cyanex 923", Separation and Purification Technology, 174, 544–553 (2017).
  • S. Van Loy, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, "Recycling of rare earths from lamp phosphor waste: enhanced dissolution of LaPO4:Ce3+,Tb3+ by mechanical activation", Journal of Cleaner Production, 156, 226–234 (2017).
5. RARE EARTHS AND THE BALANCE PROBLEM
  • K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain, B. Mishra, D. Apelian,"Rare-Earth Economics: The Balance Problem", Journal of Metals (JOM) 65, 846–848 (2013) - download
  • K. Binnemans and P.T. Jones, "Rare Earths and the Balance Problem", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 1, 29–38 (2015) - download
6. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, S. Jamar, S. Wellens, K. Binnemans, "Determination of Halide Ions in Solution by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) Spectrometry", Analytical Chemistry, 86, 1391–1394 (2014).
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, S. Jamar, S. Wellens, K. Binnemans,"Determination of Halide Impurities in Ionic Liquids by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) Spectrometry", Analytical Chemistry, 86, 3931–3938 (2014) - download
  • S. Riano, M. Regadio, K. Binnemans, T. Vander Hoogerstraete,"Practical Guidelines for Best Practice on Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Analysis of Aqueous Solutions", Spectrochimica Acta B, 124, 109–115 (2016) - download
  • M. Regadio, S. Riano, K. Binnemans, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, "Direct Analysis of Metal Ions in Solutions with High Salt Concentrations by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF)", Analytical Chemistry, 89, 4595–4603 (2017) - download

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